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Alexander Bailey
Alexander Bailey

Rington Ia Ne Dam Skachat BEST


The ringtones on this website are in .mp3 format and is compatible with almost all mobile phones. Download ringtones and use them on Nokia Mobile phones, Samsung, Sony Ericsson phones, LG mobiles, Motorola phones etc...




rington ia ne dam skachat



How did the ringtone transform from a functional component on a mobile phone into a device for playing back music? For numerous possible reasons, such as the increasing presence of confusing (and ostensibly irritating) cell phone rings in public and, more significantly, mobile handset designers’ development of a novelty technology, during the mid–late 1990s cell phone manufacturers began to include simple melodies and sound effects (or monophonic ringtones) as preset options for their phones [3]. With the massive growth in global mobile telephony in those years, particularly in Europe and Asia, mobile phone manufacturers began to include features on handsets that would encourage phone customization, and companies like Nokia introduced phones that could play newly uploaded ringtones. In particular, Nokia designed the uploadable ringtone by encoding it through a previously developed variant of the messaging system called the Short Messaging Service (SMS) — the same system now used worldwide to send text messages [4]. As early as 1998, small phone shops in Hong Kong were selling pirated ringtones, “often charging [US]$10 for a 15–second ring” [5]. In July 1999, a 23–year–old college graduate based in Nottingham, England named James Winsoar took advantage of this new technology and began to compose new ringtones, first selling them to customers individually online and eventually automating the delivery system. Originally naming his company My Nokia, he changed its name to Phat Tonez and initiated a national phenomenon in the United Kingdom [6]. Numerous small companies began imitating Winsoar’s model, in some cases switching over to ringtone production from providing phone sex lines [7]. Meanwhile, ringtone providers’ increasing use of (copyrighted) popular music meant that music publishers were licensing material for ringtones and receiving royalties — thus planting the seed for the music industry’s plan of trying to make up financial losses due to file sharing, which became popular at roughly the same time. Soon, the phenomenon was widespread in Europe and Asia, with the United States market developing a few years behind.


By 2000, cell phone manufacturers had developed and mass–marketed a polyphonic ringtone capacity, or the ability to make multiple, relatively sophisticated sounds at once rather than a single beeping melody. Unlike monophonic ringtones, which used simple text languages to encode simple melodies or sound effects [8], polyphonic ringtones involved sending an encoded set of instructions to an in–built synthesizer using one of several variants of the Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) protocol [9]. Polyphonic ringtones produce music straddling a fine line between video game music and elevator music; effectively, this is synthesized instrumental music, because the phone’s synthesizer cannot accurately produce the sound of human voices. Since its appearance over four years ago, the polyphonic ringtone has spread steadily and has now all but replaced the monophonic ringtone. Whereas in November 2000 only 9.2 percent of handsets worldwide could produce polyphone ringtones, by November 2003 66.1 percent had this capacity, according to a survey conducted by the NPD Group [10].


As early as 2000, the German company Siemens had developed a phone that could also play MP3 files, but due to memory constraints phones that played digital sound files as ringtones appeared only in 2003 (for example, Nokia’s True Tones format). At present, most newer handset models feature the capacity to play sound files as ringtones, which are typically limited by a maximum length of thirty seconds like other ringtones. Numerous file formats are used for this purpose instead of MP3 files, which are still typically too large to download efficiently via mobile. For the most part, sound file ringtones (sometimes called “ringtunes” or “mastertones”) involve low–grade, highly compressed files that only use the small phone speaker’s 300 to 3000 Hz frequency range. Although sound file ringtones account for only a small percentage of global ringtone sales, the strongest ringtone markets (Europe and East Asia) have been slightly boosted by the appearance of sound file ringtones. For example, the Japanese ringtone market, which in 2003 alone was worth US$900 million or between a quarter and a third of the year’s global ringtone sales, witnessed US$66.4 million worth of sound file ringtone (or chaku’uta) sales [11].


The process of accumulation within what one might term the “global ringtone industry” — worth somewhere between US$2.5 and US$3.5 billion in 2003 [12] — is rather complicated, owing to the numerous financial interests impinging upon each ringtone sale. First, after a customer has initiated the process of purchasing a ringtone, the ringtone must be delivered by an aggregator (or what in the wireless world is described as the “content provider”), usually a mobile entertainment company that sells ringtones, video games, cell phone wallpaper, and the like. The production of a ringtone involves either the arrangement of some preexisting music or the composition of new music (usually by in–house composers), the encoding of that music into a proper file format, and the transmission of that file via SMS to an individual phone. Second, if the ringtone makes use of pre–existing copyrighted material, which is typically the case, some percentage of the price of the ringtone must go to the music publisher who owns the copyright of the song or musical selection in question. Third, the wireless service provider takes a cut of the ringtone sale, which it can do easily since payments are made through the mobile phone itself. Finally, the wireless provider contracts one or more separate billing companies to take care of billing arrangements and verification of sales. Each participant in the ringtone market receives a certain proportion of ringtone sales that varies with to the type of ringtone sold and with the particular companies involved. In the case of polyphonic ringtones, the mobile entertainment companies providing the ringtones get the majority of the profits, around 58 percent, with the wireless carrier, different billing companies, and music publishing firms all receiving a relatively smaller proportion of profits (20 percent, 20 percent, and 12 percent, respectively) [13].


In the case of sound file ringtones, the situation is somewhat different. In particular, this kind of ringtone favors the music industry, since legally sound files fall under the more lucrative category of sampling rather than covering or arrangement. For monophonic or polyphonic synthesizer arrangements of tunes, only a small royalty (about 10 percent of the US$1–2 cost of the ringtone) goes to the original music’s composer or songwriter via a publishing company, with an additional 2–2.5 percent royalty going to a performing rights organization (ASCAP, BMI, etc.) [14]. For a sound file ringtone, however, sampling rights allow the music label that released the original sound recording to claim 40–50 percent of these more expensive ringtones (about US$2.50–3). Sound file ringtones appear to promise even higher returns generally, given their ability to accurately reproduce current radio hits, their higher price, and their relative ease of production (clipping and conversion of a preexisting sound file). The search for lucrative markets has led music industry conglomerates to partner with wireless companies — such as BMG and EMI with VerizonWireless in the U.S., or Sony and Universal with T–Mobile in Europe [15] — in the hopes of squeezing out the larger ringtone providers that currently dominate regional ringtone sales [16]. Indeed, with recent indicators suggesting that in many cases ringtone sales are outpacing recording single sales of the same song [17], music industry officials are doing all they can to ensure that ringtone sales will help them recover their losses. The ringtone, in this imaginary, might thereby “save the music industry,” whose declining global profits caused partially by file sharing are well known [18]. And with the music industry’s efforts to reclassify sound file ringtones as being record single sales rather than licensed products — whereby artists would only receive contractual royalty rates (say 15 percent) rather than 50 percent of profits as with licensed goods — we can see a step being taken in the direction of equating (and perhaps eventually supplanting) recordings with more profitable ringtones [19]. Aiding in, or perhaps enlisted for, this effort, a global trade organization called Mobile Entertainment Forum has created a sales chart for ringtones sold in the U.K., in the manner of a hit singles chart [20]. Billboard has recently adopted the idea for the North American market, creating the Hot Ringtones Top–20 list for polyphonic ringtone sales [21].


The great irony in this flurry of financial activity to make ringtones increasingly profitable is that initially they were not predicted as potential means of accumulation by capitalists. The technology was essentially conceived as a novelty, but young consumers creatively used ringtones and similar mobile entertainments to “personalize” their phones. Of course, with the industry’s rising profitability, marketers have glommed onto the notion of personalization itself, almost treating the concept as a dogma within the world of wireless accessories — and trade industry journalists have predictably reproduced the idea with alacrity. Even one recent scholarly article by Heikki Uimonen makes the same kind of argument. Researching ringtones in Finland, Uimonen interviewed a peer group of 19 teenagers about their use of ringtones, describing the numerous ways in which the youths strove to make their ringtones unique [22]. But this phenomenon isn’t as simple as the paradox of “the mass appeal of individuality,” [23] as some have suggested: from another perspective, it looks like the promotion of an apparent individuality to a demographic most powerfully molded by peer and marketing pressure. The target markets driving all of this personalization are the young adult and teen youth market; the latter’s spending on consumer electronics (especially cell phones and iPods) and accessories is currently so high that it has significantly eaten into youth clothing consumption [24]. Still, marketing executives seem unable to predict exactly what will become the next fashionable form of mobile entertainment, and instead companies have been incredibly vague in their promotion of newer technologies like the 3G (or third generation phones), which offer a host of accessories and devices [25]. Thus, the ceaseless appearance of new gadgets and devices on phones (from screen “wallpaper” to video games to cameras to video recorders to the newly touted “ring back tones”) is driven by that familiar dialectic of youth consumption desires and consumer marketing strategies, in this case of the mobile industry. The meeting point of these two forces results in the increased consumption of both new handsets and mobile entertainment files, the latter of which are provided by mobile entertainment companies and, in the case of the newest ringtones, record labels. 041b061a72


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